Business Valuation Software Help

HelpBusiness Valuation Software builds a business forecast for upto 10 years and calculates a business valuation.

The software runs in your web browser just like a web page and can be accessed from Business Valuation Software Online. Alternatively you can Download Business Valuation Software and run it directly from your computer.

Quick Start instructions provide a basic operational overview. Full instructions are included. Instructions for specific items are outlined in the Index and can also be accessed by clicking the ? after an item label in the software.

Quick Start

  1. Open the software at Business Valuation Software Online.
  2. Click Input from the top menu. If you have registered you can input data directly into the Input Module, if not you can review the Example Business data inputs.
  3. A Business Forecast is built by applying Revenue, Expense and Relative Indicator inputs. The forecast can be for up to 10 years and a sensitivity analysis applied to review Optimistic, Expected and Pessimistic scenarios. Click Forecast from the top menu to display the business forecast and from here click a line item label to plot the data set on the Chart. This can be repeated to add multiple data sets.
  4. This Forecast is then combined with Valuation inputs to calculate a Business Valuation. Click Valuation from the top menu to display the business valuation. Valuations are calculated for Optimistic, Expected and Pessimistic forecasts. Net Present Value (NPV) is also calculated by applying the Required Return % as the Discount Rate %.
  5. When you purchase a license you can input your own data to test different scenarios and save data sets for future use.

For detailed information please refer to the rest of this Help page. Help for specific items can be accessed from the Index or by clicking the ? after an item label in the software.

If you have any questions or feedback or we can help in any way please Contact Us.




Overview

Business Valuation Software is compact, easy to use, and requires minimal inputs. Outputs include a multi Year Forecast, Sensitivity Analysis, Investment Return, and calculated Business Valuation.

Business Valuation Software is an extension our Business Forecast software with additional an additional Business Valuation module. It has been adapted from our original Excel based business models developed under the Bizpep brand including:



System

Software can be run from Business Valuation Software Online as a web service on our server with no download or installation requirement. If you prefer you can Download Business Valuation Software, save the software file and run it directly from your computer.

Software runs in your browser just like a normal web page. This interface format provides the highest level of protection for your system. It does not modify or change your system settings in any way, there is no installation. The only requirement is that JavaScript / Active Content be enabled in your browser.



Data Storage

Data is only saved locally on your computer either as a cookie or a local file. Cookies can only be accessed by the site that stored them or directly from your computer, no third party can access stored cookie data. Local files can only be accessed from your computer. This provides the highest level of security for your data.



Methodology

The Analysis Modules combine Relative Indicators for future performance with basic financial data (Revenue, Variable Costs, and Fixed Costs) to analyze a business. From these inputs a Forecast for business performance is developed. The Forecast can in-turn be applied to develop a Business Valuation. Outputs include a multi Year Forecast, Sensitivity Analysis, Investment Return, calculated Business Valuation, Break-even and Optimum Price analysis.

The performance of any business is impacted by its macro and micro environment. The macro environment encompasses variables outside the control of the business. The micro environment encompasses variables within the control of the business. By understanding the impact of these factors on future performance a business can improve its decision making to maximize opportunities and minimize risk. Using relative Indicators to quantify macro and micro variables allows their impact to be incorporated into performance analysis, provides insight into their impact and acts as a measure for the outcome of potential strategies and actions. Relative Indicators also enable management skills and competitive advantage to be incorporated into a forecast and valuation. Managers with different skill sets will result in similar businesses performing differently. Because the value of a business depends upon the return it provides and this return is impacted by management a business can have a different value to different people. Identifying areas were management can add value by applying their unique skill sets offers the opportunity to transform a business.





The menu at the top of the modules provides access to the main Input page, each of the Analysis areas, the Chart, the Help page (this page), the Registration page and the developer web site.



Input

This displays the main data input for analysis. Start here and input your business data.



Analysis Areas

Analysis modules are listed along the top menu. Registration is required to fully activate the software. Only example inputs can be applied in non registered software.



Chart

Plots the data selected from the Analysis modules.



Help

This page. Specific Item Help can be located using the ? link following item labels in the software.



Registration

Provides the current Registration status of the software.

Software is available free for evaluation using an Example Business data. To fully enable the software it must be registered.

To register your software purchase a software license using the secure online payment link.

As soon as your transaction is processed you will receive Registration Details by return email. Then click the When you have your Registration Details Click the here button and input your Registration Details. This will register and fully enable your software.

Registration details are recorded as cookies on your computer. If your cookies are blocked, cleared or removed registration details and will be lost and they will need to be re-entered. To maintain registration details please ensure cookies are enabled and are not cleared or blocked.



BusinessSoftwareManagement.com

Link to the developer web site, for contact information and support.



Input - Instructions for Use

Current performance inputs are based on the current full year performance of the business. Broad expense categories are provided to determine the level of expenses that vary with sales (Variable Expenses) and those that don't (Fixed Expenses). A recent business taxation return will assist in determining current inputs. If required they can be adjusted to best reflect current trading.

Input for Relative Indicators should be based on your subjective views. These are translated into quantifiable values for module operation. There is no need to provide "perfect" answers. Use industry knowledge to make informed estimates. The goal is to provide a streamline tool to indicate possible outcomes. Inputs do not have to be perfect but should reasonably reflect current business operation.



Top Controls

These are Module specific Controls. They appear as click-able links below the Menu.



Compress

This Control hides the Current performance inputs.

It is a toggle between Compress and Expand.



Expand

This Control shows the Current performance inputs.

It is a toggle between Expand and Compress.



Format

This Control allows the decimal precision (number of decimal places) of the values to be adjusted. To adjust the decimal precision click Format. You will then be prompted to enter a new decimal precision number. Then click Format Confirm.



Print

This Control prints the current window.

You can also use the browsers Print and Print Preview functions to set print variables. To do this from your browser tool bar go File, Print or File, Print Preview.



Business Name

This is an identifier for the currently displayed Analysis data. The default name is Example Business. To save data for a New Business click Save with the default Example Business selected. You will then be prompted to enter a new Business Name. Input a name for the Business and then click Save Confirm. When saved the name will appear in the drop down list and the saved data can be recalled.



Save

This is a click-able Control, it saves your input data as a cookie on your computer. To save data for a New Business click Save with the default name Example Business selected. You will then be prompted to enter a new business name. Select an existing Business Name to Save using the existing name. You cannot Save or Delete data for the Example Business.



Load

This is a click-able Control, it loads previously saved data from a cookie on your computer. To load business data select the required Business Name and click Load.



Delete

This is a click-able Control, it deletes a cookie on your computer containing previously saved data. To delete business data select the required Business Name and click Delete.



Export

This is a click-able Control, it exports your input data to an xml file format that can be saved as a local file on your computer. To export business data select the required Business Name and click Export. The exported data is encoded into in an xml format and displayed in a TextArea. Select All of the TextArea contents, right click the TextArea and Copy. Open a text editor (ie notepad), Paste the copied data to a new file and Save As an xml file (*.xml). Use a descriptive file name (ie jimsbusiness.xml) so you can identify the data set saved.



Import

This is a click-able Control, it imports your input data from a previously saved xml file format on your computer. To import business data click Import, then Browse to locate and select the required previously saved .xml file. Click Import Confirm to import the xml data.

This control is only functional in registered software.



Annual Revenue

Input the Revenue generated by the business for the current year.



Expenses

Current expense inputs.



Monetary

This is a click-able Control. This allows you to input your Expenses directly in Monetary values (Dollars, Pounds etc). It functions as a toggle control with the Percent control. The default setting is Monetary.



Percent

This is a click-able Control. This allows you to input your Expenses as a Percentage of Annual Revenue. It functions as a toggle control with the Monetary control. The default setting is Monetary.



Variable Expenses

Variable Expenses vary with the volume of product or service you provide. Only include these costs in this section and allocate them into one of the five categories.



Supplies

Input the annual variable expense for materials and supplies directly related to producing your product or providing your service.



Wages

Input the annual variable expense for labor directly related to producing your product or providing your service. This should include the annual value of any labor provided by the owner that is directly related to producing your product or providing your service. Any owner labor value should reflect the effective labor effort and can be estimated as the cost of an employee who could replace the owners efforts related to producing your product or providing your service. Labor expenses should include all associated on-costs and benefits.

Do not included fixed labor expenses in this value.



Distribution

Input the annual variable expense for distribution of your product or service. This may include freight costs, packaging, and vehicle running costs.



Marketing

Input the annual variable expense for marketing. Include advertising, promotional publications, sponsorships, client functions, and any marketing or sales expense. Marketing is not essentially a variable expense, however it is assumed that marketing does influence the level of sales and a relationship exists between the level of marketing and the level of sales. It is on this basis that it forms a component of Variable Costs.



Other Variable

Input any annual variable expenses not already accounted for.



Total Variable

This is the sum of the variable expenses. It is expressed as a monetary value and as a percentage of Annual Revenue.



Fixed Expenses

Fixed Expenses remain constant (up to a point) while the volume of sales vary. Only include these costs in this section and allocate them into one of the five categories.



Location

Input the annual fixed location expense. Include rent, power and light, maintenance, building insurance, security, and cleaning.

For a business Valuation if the business owns the property then include the current market rental/lease rate for the property ie what it would cost to lease the property for a year. Do not include purchase or finance costs.



Salaries

Input the annual fixed expense for labor. This should include any labor expense not already accounted for in variable costs. This should include the annual value of any labor provided by the owner that has not already been accounted for in variable costs. Any owner labor value should reflect the effective labor effort and can be estimated as the cost of an employee who could replace the owners efforts. Labor expenses should include all associated on-costs and benefits.



Administration

Input the annual fixed administration expense. Include office phone, equipment costs, and stationary.



Interest

Input the annual fixed Interest Cost. Consider only operational finance ie working capital and overdrafts. Include only the interest component of loan repayments. Principle components reflect assets.

Do not include interest related to property finance for which current market rental/lease rates have been included in Location Expenses.

If you are undertaking a Business Valuation it is recommended that you do not include interest related to the business purchase. Initially the business should be valued with 100% equity. This ensures the valuation provides the required return on the Total Investment. Once you have established valuation details you can then add purchase finance interest costs to determine the impact on the business.



Other Fixed

Input any annual fixed expenses not already accounted for.



Total Fixed

This is the sum of the fixed expenses. It is expressed as a monetary value and as a percentage of Annual Revenue.



Total Expenses

This is the sum of the variable and fixed expenses. It is expressed as a monetary value and as a percentage of Annual Revenue.



Profit/Surplus

This is Annual Revenue less Total Expenses. Profit/Surplus reflects the before tax operating profit/loss of the business for the full years trading. It represents the day to day (short term) business performance. Asset investment including property, plant and equipment are not considered.



Depreciation

Annual replacement costs for business assets are calculated as the replacement value of Business Assets divided by the Life of Assets. This provides for constant reinvestment to maintain the business.



Business Assets

Input the replacement value of physical Business Assets. Exclude property. Consider vehicles, plant and equipment.



Life of Assets

Input the average life of the assets. The replacement value of Business Assets will be divided by the Life of Assets to provide an indication of annual asset Depreciation Allowance.



Relative Indicators

Relative Indicators are applied to quantify factors that influence future business performance. Relative Indicators for each year are applied to reflect the percentage expected change in the unit cost or strength of the factor. Each indicator is relative to the prior year. If there is no change from the previous year the Relative Indicator is 0. A 10% increase from the previous year is reflected by a relative indicator of 10. A 10% decrease from the previous year is reflected by a relative indicator of -10. Relative indicators for costs reflect changes in the base unit of the expense such as labor costs per hour or material costs per unit.

Relative Indicators are required for each factor for each of the Forecast Years. If there is no change from the previous year the Relative Indicator is 0. If there is a change input the positive or negative percentage change. Revenue and Expense inputs are used with the Relative Indicators to calculate forecast values.

The default value for Relative Indicators is 0, indicating no change year on year.



Forecast Years

This Control allows the number of Forecast Years to be adjusted. To adjust the number Forecast Years click Forecast Years. You will then be prompted to enter a new Forecast Years number. Then click Forecast Years Confirm.

As the number of forecast years is increased the reliability of the forecast decreases because the further into the future we look the less certain it becomes. Generally a 3 year forecast provides a solid base for analysis.

The default value for Forecast Years is 3, the maximum number is 10.

When Forecast Years are increased the Relative Indicators of the last year are applied as Relative Indicators for the following years added. Adjust these as required.



Market Strength

Input the Relative Indicator to reflect the percentage change from the previous year for this indicator. If Market Strength will remain much the same input 0, indicating no change over the previous year. If you believe it will increase by 10% then the input would be 10. If you believe it will decrease by 10% then the input would be -10.

Consider market growth, technology and regulatory impacts and customer needs. Market Strength is an indicator of the overall demand for the type of product or service you provide. This indicator has a direct relationship to forecast Annual Revenue. All things being equal as market strength increases Annual Revenue increases.



Business Market Position

Input the Relative Indicator to reflect the percentage change from the previous year for this indicator. For an increase input a positive number, a decrease a negative number or for no change 0.

Consider your position in the market, and the impact of your current actions. This is a measure of your standing relative to the competition as perceived by potential consumers. If things will remain much the same input 0, indicating no change over the previous year. If you have actions to improve the position of your business by 10% then the input would be 10. This indicator has a direct relationship to forecast Annual Revenue. All thing being equal as Business Market Position increases Annual Revenue increases. Actions contributing to the business position must be substantiated and implemented to have an impact.



Level of Competition

Input the Relative Indicator to reflect the percentage change from the previous year for this indicator. For an increase input a positive number, a decrease a negative number or for no change 0.

Consider the number of competitors, competitor strategies and potential new entrants. This indicator has an inverse relationship to forecast Annual Revenue. All things being equal as the level of competition increases Annual Revenue decreases.



Goods and Services

Input the Relative Indicator to reflect the percentage change from the previous year for this indicator. For an increase input a positive number, a decrease a negative number or for no change 0.

Consider potential unit cost changes in supplier pricing for products and services used by your business, sources of supply, your bargaining power, demand for materials, and possible alternatives. This indicator has a direct relationship to all expenses except Wages, Salaries and Interest expenses. All things being equal as the unit cost of Goods and Services increases these expenses increase. In many cases this indicator is closely related to inflation.



Salaries and Wages

Input the Relative Indicator to reflect the percentage change from the previous year for this indicator. For an increase input a positive number, a decrease a negative number or for no change 0.

Consider market forces and availability of skilled staff. This indicator has a direct relationship to forecast Wages and Salaries expenses. When using the Valuation Module it also has a direct relationship to forecast Owners Earning Power. All things being equal as the unit Salaries and Wages costs increase these expenses increase.



Interest Rates

Input the Relative Indicator to reflect the percentage change from the previous year for this indicator. For an increase input a positive number, a decrease a negative number or for no change 0.

This is percentage change not actual values. For a current interest rate of 5% a relative indicator of 10 in Year 1 equates to an actual interest rate of 5.5% (5% * 1.1), a relative indicator of 10 in Year 2 takes this to 6.05% (5.5 * 1.1). This indicator has a direct relationship to forecast Interest expense. All things being equal as interest rates increase this expense increases.

If the business has no Interest Expense then Relative Indicator Interest Rates has no impact and can be left as 0.



Variable Expenses Efficiency

Input the Relative Indicator to reflect the percentage change from the previous year for this indicator. For an increase input a positive number, a decrease a negative number or for no change 0.

This should reflect changes in the relationship between your Variable Expenses and revenue. If you have actions to improve your Variable Expenses Efficiency (decrease variable expenses) by 10% over the previous year input 10. Consider changes in production, distribution and marketing processes and supplies. This indicator has an inverse relationship to all forecast Variable Expenses. All things being equal, as Variable Expenses Efficiency increases, less Supplies, Wages, Distribution and Marketing resources are required to produce the same revenue resulting in a decrease in these expenses. Actions must be substantiated and implemented to have an impact.



Fixed Expenses Efficiency

Input the Relative Indicator to reflect the percentage change from the previous year for this indicator. For an increase input a positive number, a decrease a negative number or for no change 0.

Consider changes in administration processes, management structures and location utilization. Factors related to financing levels and requirements such as credit arrangements, debt collection and working capital are also relevant. This indicator has an inverse relationship to all forecast Fixed Expenses. All things being equal as Fixed Expenses Efficiency increases less administration, finance, management and location resources are required to produce the same revenue resulting in a decrease in these expenses. Actions must be substantiated and implemented to have an impact.



Fixed Expense Flow-on

Input the Relative Indicator to reflect the percentage flow on of fixed expenses for a 100% increase in revenue. If you believe the business has surplus Fixed Expense resources (ie administration, management, location and finance utilization is less than 100%) and revenue variations will have no impact on Fixed Expenses input 0. To provide for an increase in Fixed Expenses to handle increased Revenue input a positive number. A negative number would indicate that Fixed Expenses will decrease with Revenue increases, in most cases this would not be applicable.

This indicates the estimated level of Fixed Expense adjustment required to support revenue variations. Fixed Expenses are generally considered a constant expense, however large sustained revenue variations place pressure on fixed expense resources and usually result in an increase in fixed expenses. This may include larger floor area, more administration costs or higher financing. The Fixed Expense Flow-on is the percentage of increase in Fixed Expenses for a 100% increase in revenue. A Fixed Expense Flow-on of 20 reflects a 20% increase in Fixed Costs expense for every 100% increase in Annual Revenue. This indicator has a direct relationship to all forecast Fixed Expenses.



Sensitivity %

Input the percentage change in Relative Indicators utilized to generate an Optimistic and Pessimistic Forecast. If you feel it is possible your Relative Indicator values may be in error by +/- 20% input 20. Sensitivity Analysis allows you to review the impact of potential variances from your provided input.

Forecasts are generated from the Relative Indicator values provided and Sensitivity Analysis adjusts the Relative Indicator values (not the Revenue and Expense values) by the Sensitivity % to build an Optimistic and Pessimistic Forecast.



Valuation Data

This data is only applicable for the Valuation Module.



Owners Earning Power

Input the annual income the owner could earn if employed outside the business. Include any benefits. The actual return from the business must compensate the owner for giving up external earnings and provide the required return on Investment. A return on Investment only occurs after the owner has been compensated for external earnings given up.



Required Return %

Input the percentage Required Return on investment for the Business Valuation. You should consider the level of risk associated with investment in the business and the return offered by alternative investments. If you can get 10% from a secure bank deposit with no (minimal) risk then you would expect substantially more from a business where you accept total responsibility for performance and risk your investment.

The Calculated Expected Valuation is provided here to show the impact of input changes. Full workings and Valuation Analysis are available from the Valuation Module.



Expected Business Return

This is the calculated Expected Business Return. It reflects the before tax annual long term return of the business. It is calculated as the Profit/Surplus less the Depreciation Allowance and less Owners External Earning Power (where applicable). Expected Business Return does not change with Sensitivity Analysis. Full workings and Sensitivity Analysis are available from the Forecast Module. It is provided here to show the impact of input changes.



Forecast - Instructions for Use

The Forecast Module displays the business Revenue, Expense, Surplus and Return values calculated for each forecast year and provides step through Optimistic, Expected, Pessimistic Sensitivity Analysis.

The forecast provides a high level strategic budget overview, assists in the identification of business opportunities and risks, and provides a quantifiable framework for the development of business strategies and actions.

Calculation formula are provided for reference and to enable an in-depth understanding of the underlying calculations applied in the forecast. Analysis can be completed without reference to the formula applied.



Top Controls

These are Module specific Controls. They appear as click-able links below the Analysis Menu.



Compress

This Control hides line items.

It is a toggle between Compress and Expand.



Expand

This Control shows line items.

It is a toggle between Expand and Compress.



Print

This Control prints the current window.

You can also use the browsers Print and Print Preview functions to set print variables. To do this from your browser tool bar go File, Print or File, Print Preview.



Expected-Optimistic-Pessimistic

This control steps through the Sensitivity settings Expected, Optimistic, Pessimistic and adjusts the Relative Indicators applied in the Forecast by the Sensitivity %. Expected provides no adjustment to Relative Indicators, Optimistic improves Relative Indicators by the Sensitivity %, and Pessimistic degrades Relative Indicators by the Sensitivity %. The adjusted Relative Indicators are applied in the Forecast Calculation.

If the item has positive relationship to the Relative Indicator

Relative Indicator Applied = Relative Indicator + (Relative Indicator * Sensitivity %)

If the item has an negative relationship to the Relative Indicator

Relative Indicator Applied = Relative Indicator - (Relative Indicator * Sensitivity %)



Annual Revenue

Revenue has a positive relationship to the Relative Indicators Market Strength and Business Market Position. As these indicators increase Revenue increases. Revenue has a negative relationship to the Relative Indicator Level of Competition. As this indicator increases Revenue decreases.

Revenue equals previous Revenue plus Revenue from changes in Market Strength plus Revenue from changes in Business Market Position less Revenue from changes in Level of Competition.

Current Year Revenue is provided as an Input.

The formula for the Revenue in following years is:

Annual Revenue =
Previous Annual Revenue
+ (Previous Annual Revenue * Market Strength Relative Indicator Applied)
+ (Previous Annual Revenue * Business Market Position Relative Indicator Applied)
- (Previous Annual Revenue * Level of Competition Relative Indicator Applied)

Sensitivity Example

Input Values
Annual Revenue Current Year : 1 000 000.00

Market Strength Relative Indicator Year 1 : 2.00
Business Market Position Relative Indicator Year 1 : 3.00
Level of Competition Relative Indicator Year 1 : 2.00

Sensitivity % : 25.00

Calculations - Year 1 Expected - Sensitivity % = 0

Annual Revenue Current Year = 1 000 000.00

Annual Revenue has positive relationship to the Market Strength Relative Indicator therefore:
Market Strength Relative Indicator Applied =
Market Strength Relative Indicator
+ (Market Strength Relative Indicator * Sensitivity %)

Market Strength Relative Indicator Applied = 2.00 + (2.00 * 0/100)
Market Strength Relative Indicator Applied = 2.00

Annual Revenue has positive relationship to the Business Market Position Relative Indicator therefore:
Business Market Position Relative Indicator Applied =
Business Market Position Relative Indicator
+ (Business Market Position Relative Indicator * Sensitivity %)

Business Market Position Relative Indicator Applied = 3.00 + (3.00 * 0/100)
Business Market Position Relative Indicator Applied = 3.00

Annual Revenue has negative relationship to the Level of Competition Relative Indicator therefore:
Level of Competition Relative Indicator Applied =
Level of Competition Relative Indicator
- (Level of Competition Relative Indicator * Sensitivity %)

Level of Competition Relative Indicator Applied = 2.00 - (2.00 * 0/100)
Level of Competition Relative Indicator Applied = 2.00

resulting in:

Expected Annual Revenue Year 1 = 1 000 000.00 + (1 000 000.00 * 2.00/100) + (1 000 000.00 * 3.00/100) - (1 000 000.00 * 2.00/100)

Expected Annual Revenue Year 1 = 1 030 000

Calculations - Year 1 Optimistic - Sensitivity % = +25

Annual Revenue Current Year = 1 000 000.00

Annual Revenue has positive relationship to the Market Strength Relative Indicator therefore:
Market Strength Relative Indicator Applied =
Market Strength Relative Indicator
+ (Market Strength Relative Indicator * Sensitivity %)

Market Strength Relative Indicator Applied = 2.00 + (2.00 * 25/100)
Market Strength Relative Indicator Applied = 2.50

Annual Revenue has positive relationship to the Business Market Position Relative Indicator therefore:
Business Market Position Relative Indicator Applied =
Business Market Position Relative Indicator
+ (Business Market Position Relative Indicator * Sensitivity %)

Business Market Position Relative Indicator Applied = 3.00 + (3.00 * 25/100)
Business Market Position Relative Indicator Applied = 3.75

Annual Revenue has negative relationship to the Level of Competition Relative Indicator therefore:
Level of Competition Relative Indicator Applied =
Level of Competition Relative Indicator
- (Level of Competition Relative Indicator * Sensitivity %)

Level of Competition Relative Indicator Applied = 2.00 - (2.00 * 25/100)
Level of Competition Relative Indicator Applied = 1.50

resulting in:

Optimistic Annual Revenue Year 1 = 1 000 000.00 + (1 000 000.00 * 2.50/100) + (1 000 000.00 * 3.75/100) - (1 000 000.00 * 1.5/100)

Optimistic Annual Revenue Year 1 = 1 047 500

Calculations - Year 1 Pessimistic - Sensitivity % = -25

Annual Revenue Current Year = 1 000 000.00

Annual Revenue has positive relationship to the Market Strength Relative Indicator therefore:
Market Strength Relative Indicator Applied =
Market Strength Relative Indicator
+ (Market Strength Relative Indicator * Sensitivity %)

Market Strength Relative Indicator Applied = 2.00 + (2.00 * -25/100)
Market Strength Relative Indicator Applied = 1.5

Annual Revenue has positive relationship to the Business Market Position Relative Indicator therefore:
Business Market Position Relative Indicator Applied =
Business Market Position Relative Indicator
+ (Business Market Position Relative Indicator * Sensitivity %)

Business Market Position Relative Indicator Applied = 3.00 + (3.00 * -25/100)
Business Market Position Relative Indicator Applied = 2.25

Annual Revenue has negative relationship to the Level of Competition Relative Indicator therefore:
Level of Competition Relative Indicator Applied =
Level of Competition Relative Indicator
- (Level of Competition Relative Indicator * Sensitivity %)

Level of Competition Relative Indicator Applied = 2.00 - (2.00 * -25/100)
Level of Competition Relative Indicator Applied = 2.50

resulting in:

Pessimistic Annual Revenue Year 1 = 1 000 000.00 + (1 000 000.00 * 1.50/100) + (1 000 000.00 * 2.25/100) - (1 000 000.00 * 2.50/100)

Pessimistic Annual Revenue Year 1 = 1 012 500



Variable Expenses

Variable Expenses have a direct relationship to Revenue and a positive relationship with the associated Relative Indicator. As these increase the Variable Expense increases. Variable Expenses have a negative relationship to the Relative Indicator Variable Costs Efficiency. As this increases the Variable Expense decreases.

Current Year Expenses are provided as an Input.

The general formula for a Variable Expense in following years is:

Variable Expense =
(
Previous Expense
+ (Previous Expense * Relative Indicator Applied)
- (Previous Expense * Variable Costs Efficiency Relative Indicator Applied)
)
* (Current Annual Revenue / Previous Annual Revenue)



Supplies

Supplies is a Variable Expense and has a direct relationship to Revenue and a positive relationship to the Relative Indicator Goods and Services. As these increase the expense increases. It has a negative relationship to the Relative Indicator Variable Costs Efficiency. As this increases the expense decreases.

Current Year Supplies Expense is provided as an Input.

The formula for Supplies Expense in following years is:

Supplies =
(
Previous Supplies
+ (Previous Supplies * Goods and Services Relative Indicator Applied)
- (Previous Supplies * Variable Costs Efficiency Relative Indicator Applied)
)
* (Current Annual Revenue / Previous Annual Revenue)



Wages

Wages is a Variable Expense and has a direct relationship to Revenue and a positive relationship to the Relative Indicator Salaries and Wages. As these increase the expense increases. It has a negative relationship to the Relative Indicator Variable Costs Efficiency. As this increases the expense decreases.

Current Year Wages Expense is provided as an Input.

The formula for the Wages Expense in following years is:

Wages =
(
Previous Wages
+ (Previous Wages * Salaries and Wages Relative Indicator Applied)
- (Previous Wages * Variable Costs Efficiency Relative Indicator Applied)
)
* (Current Annual Revenue / Previous Annual Revenue)



Distribution

Distribution is a Variable Expense and has a direct relationship to Revenue and a positive relationship to the Relative Indicator Goods and Services. As these increase the expense increases. It has a negative relationship to the Relative Indicator Variable Costs Efficiency. As this increases the expense decreases.

Current Year Distribution Expense is provided as an Input.

The formula for Distribution Expense in following years is:

Distribution =
(
Previous Distribution
+ (Previous Distribution * Goods and Services Relative Indicator Applied)
- (Previous Distribution * Variable Costs Efficiency Relative Indicator Applied)
)
* (Current Annual Revenue / Previous Annual Revenue)



Marketing

Marketing is a Variable Expense and has a direct relationship to Revenue and a positive relationship to the Relative Indicator Goods and Services. As these increase the expense increases. It has a negative relationship to the Relative Indicator Variable Costs Efficiency. As this increases the expense decreases.

Current Year Marketing Expense is provided as an Input.

The formula for Marketing Expense in following years is:

Marketing =
(
Previous Marketing
+ (Previous Marketing * Goods and Services Relative Indicator Applied)
- (Previous Marketing * Variable Costs Efficiency Relative Indicator Applied)
)
* (Current Annual Revenue / Previous Annual Revenue)



Other Variable

Other Variable is a Variable Expense and has a direct relationship to Revenue and a positive relationship to the Relative Indicator Goods and Services. As these increase the expense increases. It has a negative relationship to the Relative Indicator Variable Costs Efficiency. As this increases the expense decreases.

Current Year Other Variable Expense is provided as an Input.

The formula for Other Variable Expense in following years is:

Other Variable =
(
Previous Other Variable
+ (Previous Other Variable * Goods and Services Relative Indicator Applied)
- (Previous Other Variable * Variable Costs Efficiency Relative Indicator Applied)
)
* (Current Annual Revenue / Previous Annual Revenue)



Total Variable

Total Variable = sum of all Variable Expenses.



Gross Profit

Gross Profit = Annual Revenue - Total Variable



Mark-Up %

Mark-Up % = (Annual Revenue / Total Variable) - 1



Fixed Expenses

Fixed Expenses are often considered a constant expense, however they are still subject to increases in the underlying cost. For example if the business includes a manager and the managers salary increases then this Fixed Expense increases regardless of Revenue. Also large sustained revenue variations place pressure on Fixed Expenses and usually result in an increased Fixed Expense, this is accounted for using the Flow-on Relative Indicator.

Fixed Expenses have a direct relationship to the Fixed Cost Flow-on Relative Indicator and the change in Revenue from the previous year. They have a positive relationship to any associated Direct Relative Indicator. As these increase the Fixed Expense increases. Fixed Expenses have a negative relationship to the Relative Indicator Fixed Costs Efficiency. As this increases the Fixed Expense decreases.

Current Year Expenses are provided as an Input.

The general formula for a Fixed Expense in following years is:

Fixed Expense =
(
Previous Expense
+ (Previous Expense * Direct Relative Indicator Applied)
- (Previous Expense * Fixed Costs Efficiency Relative Indicator Applied)
)
* (Current Annual Revenue - Previous Annual Revenue)
/ Previous Annual Revenue * Fixed Cost Flow-on Relative Indicator Applied



Location

Location is a Fixed Expense and has a direct relationship to the Fixed Cost Flow-on Relative Indicator and the change in Revenue from the previous year. It has a positive relationship to the Relative Indicator Goods and Services. As these increase the expense increases. It has a negative relationship to the Relative Indicator Fixed Costs Costs Efficiency. As this increases the expense decreases.

Current Year Location Expense is provided as an Input.

The formula for Location Expense in following years is:

Location Expense =
(
Previous Location
+ (Previous Location * Goods and Services Relative Indicator Applied)
- (Previous Location * Fixed Costs Efficiency Relative Indicator Applied)
)
* (Current Annual Revenue - Previous Annual Revenue)
/ Previous Annual Revenue * Fixed Cost Flow-on Relative Indicator Applied



Salaries

Salaries is a Fixed Expense and has a direct relationship to the Fixed Cost Flow-on Relative Indicator and the change in Revenue from the previous year. It has a positive relationship to the Relative Indicator Salaries and Wages. As these increase the expense increases. It has a negative relationship to the Relative Indicator Fixed Costs Costs Efficiency. As this increases the expense decreases.

Current Year Salaries Expense is provided as an Input.

The formula for Salaries Expense in following years is:

Salaries Expense =
(
Previous Salaries
+ (Previous Salaries * Salaries and Wages Relative Indicator Applied)
- (Previous Salaries * Fixed Costs Efficiency Relative Indicator Applied)
)
* (Current Annual Revenue - Previous Annual Revenue)
/ Previous Annual Revenue * Fixed Cost Flow-on Relative Indicator Applied



Administration

Administration is a Fixed Expense and has a direct relationship to the Fixed Cost Flow-on Relative Indicator and the change in Revenue from the previous year. It has a positive relationship to the Relative Indicator Goods and Services. As these increase the expense increases. It has a negative relationship to the Relative Indicator Fixed Costs Costs Efficiency. As this increases the expense decreases.

Current Year Administration Expense is provided as an Input.

The formula for Administration Expense in following years is:

Administration Expense =
(
Previous Administration
+ (Previous Administration * Goods and Services Relative Indicator Applied)
- (Previous Administration * Fixed Costs Efficiency Relative Indicator Applied)
)
* (Current Annual Revenue - Previous Annual Revenue)
/ Previous Annual Revenue * Fixed Cost Flow-on Relative Indicator Applied



Interest

Interest is a Fixed Expense and has a direct relationship to the Fixed Cost Flow-on Relative Indicator and the change in Revenue from the previous year. It has a positive relationship to the Relative Indicator Interest Rates. As these increase the expense increases. It has a negative relationship to the Relative Indicator Fixed Costs Costs Efficiency. As this increases the expense decreases.

Current Year Interest Expense is provided as an Input.

The formula for Interest Expense in following years is:

Interest Expense =
(
Previous Interest
+ (Previous Interest * Goods and Services Relative Indicator Applied)
- (Previous Interest * Fixed Costs Efficiency Relative Indicator Applied)
)
* (Current Annual Revenue - Previous Annual Revenue)
/ Previous Annual Revenue * Fixed Cost Flow-on Relative Indicator Applied



Other Fixed

Other Fixed is a Fixed Expense and has a direct relationship to the Fixed Cost Flow-on Relative Indicator and the change in Revenue from the previous year. It has a positive relationship to the Relative Indicator Goods and Services. As these increase the expense increases. It has a negative relationship to the Relative Indicator Fixed Costs Costs Efficiency. As this increases the expense decreases.

Current Year Other Fixed Expense is provided as an Input.

The formula for Other Fixed Expense in following years is:

Other Fixed Expense =
(
Previous Other Fixed
+ (Previous Other Fixed * Goods and Services Relative Indicator Applied)
- (Previous Other Fixed * Fixed Costs Efficiency Relative Indicator Applied)
)
* (Current Annual Revenue - Previous Annual Revenue)
/ Previous Annual Revenue * Fixed Cost Flow-on Relative Indicator Applied



Total Fixed

Total Fixed = sum of all Fixed Expenses.



Total Expenses

Total Expenses = Total Variable + Total Fixed



Profit/Surplus

Profit/Surplus reflects the before tax annual operating profit/loss of the business. It is calculated as the Annual Revenue less Total Expenses. It excludes asset re-investment and represents the day to day (short term) business performance.

Profit/Surplus = Annual Revenue - Total Expenses



Depreciation

A Depreciation Allowance is required for the long term maintenance of the business. If the Depreciation Allowance is not reinvested business performance and value will decrease. It is in effect a fixed expense and is subject to the same influences, Flow-on, Fixed Costs Efficiency and Goods and Services Relative Indicator.

Depreciation Allowance has a direct relationship to the Fixed Cost Flow-on Relative Indicator and the change in Revenue from the previous year. It has a positive relationship to the Relative Indicator Goods and Services. As these increase the allowance increases. It has a negative relationship to the Relative Indicator Fixed Costs Efficiency. As this increases the expense decreases.

Current Year Depreciation Allowance is:

Depreciation Allowance = Business Assets / Life of Assets

The formula for Depreciation Allowance in following years is:

Depreciation Allowance =
(
Previous Depreciation
+ (Previous Depreciation * Goods and Services Relative Indicator Applied)
- (Previous Depreciation * Fixed Costs Efficiency Relative Indicator Applied)
)
* (Current Annual Revenue - Previous Annual Revenue)
/ Previous Annual Revenue * Fixed Cost Flow-on Relative Indicator Applied



Owners Earning Power

Owners Earning Power is only applicable for the Valuation Module. If the Valuation Module is not Activated Owners Earning Power is effectively 0.

This is the annual income the owner could earn if employed outside the business. It reflects the income given up by the owner to work in the business. This must be recouped through the business before there is any return on investment generated. It is not influenced by the performance of the business but does have a positive relationship to the Relative Salaries and Wages Relative Indicator.

Current Year Owners Earning Power is provided as an Input.

The formula for Owners Earning Power in following years is:

Owners Earning Power =
(
Previous Owners Earning Power
+ (Owners Earning Power * Salaries and Wages Relative Indicator)



Business Return

Business Return reflects the before tax annual long term return of the business. It considers asset re-investment and any Owners external income forsaken. It is is calculated as the Profit/Surplus less the Depreciation Allowance and less Owners External Earning Power.

Business Return = Profit/Surplus - Depreciation - Owners Earning Power



Valuation - Instructions for Use

The Valuation Module applies the Forecast Analysis to generate a Business Valuation. The valuation is determined by the average Business Return (profit) over the forecast period and Required Return on Investment.

Sensitivity Analysis provides Optimistic, Expected and Pessimistic business valuations. The Expected Valuation reflects the valuation for the most likely (Expected) return. Purchasing the business for an amount equal to the Expected Valuation provides an average Return on Investment equal to the Required Return %.

Calculation formula are provided for reference and to enable an in-depth understanding of the underlying calculations applied. Valuation can be completed without reference to the formula.



Top Controls

These are Module specific Controls. They appear as click-able links below the Analysis Menu.

Print

This Control prints the current window.

You can also use the browsers Print and Print Preview functions to set print variables. To do this from your browser tool bar go File, Print or File, Print Preview.



Business Return

Business Return as calculated in the Forecast is provided for each Sensitivity (Optimistic, Expected and Pessimistic), for the Current Year, each Forecast Year and the Average of the Forecast Years.

It is a true indicator of the return an investment in the business will provide.

Business Return reflects the before tax annual long term return of the business. It considers asset re-investment and any Owners external income forsaken. It is is calculated as the Profit/Surplus less the Depreciation Allowance and less Owners External Earning Power.

Business Return = Profit/Surplus - Depreciation - Owners Earning Power



Optimistic Business Return

Optimistic Business Return is the Business Return where Relative Indicator values are adjusted by the Sensitivity % to improve the Forecast. It can be considered the best case scenario.

The % Return on Investment is based on the Applied Valuation, by default this is the Expected Valuation. This is the percentage the return the business provides for an investment (purchase price) equal to the Applied Valuation.



Expected Business Return

Expected Business Return is the Business Return where Relative Indicator values not adjusted by the Sensitivity %. It can be considered the most likely or average scenario.

The % Return on Investment is based on the Applied Valuation, by default this is the Expected Valuation. This is the percentage the return the business provides for an investment (purchase price) equal to the Applied Valuation.



Pessimistic Business Return

Pessimistic Business Return is the Business Return where Relative Indicator values are adjusted by the Sensitivity % to degrade the Forecast. It can be considered the worst case scenario.

The % Return on Investment is based on the Applied Valuation, by default this is the Expected Valuation. This is the percentage the return the business provides for an investment (purchase price) equal to the Applied Valuation.



Valuation

The Valuation is based on the Business Return and the Required Return % to determine a business valuation.



Optimistic Valuation

Optimistic Valuation is the value of the business based on the Average Optimistic Return divided by the Required Return %. It is the value of the business that provides the Required Return % when the Optimistic Business Return is achieved.

Optimistic Valuation = Average Optimistic Return / (Required Return % / 100)

The Average Optimistic Return is the average of Forecast Years only, it does not include the Current Year.



Expected Valuation

Expected Valuation is the value of the business based on the Average Expected Return divided by the Required Return %. It is the value of the business that provides the Required Return % when the Expected Business Return is achieved.

Expected Valuation = Average Expected Return / (Required Return % / 100)

The Average Expected Return is the average of Forecast Years only, it does not include the Current Year.



Pessimistic Valuation

Pessimistic Valuation is the value of the business based on the Average Pessimistic Return divided by the Required Return %. It is the value of the business that provides the Required Return % when the Pessimistic Business Return is achieved.

Pessimistic Valuation = Average Pessimistic Return / (Required Return % / 100)

The Average Pessimistic Return is the average of Forecast Years only, it does not include the Current Year.



Applied Valuation

Applied Valuation is the valuation currently used in the % Return on Investment calculations for the Business Return and the Variance to Valuation calculations for the Net Present Value.

The Applied Valuation can be changed to review the impact on the Return on Investment. This effectively provides a reverse valuation where the Return on Investment can be determined for a set asking price.

The default Applied Valuation value is the Expected Valuation.



Reset Applied Valuation

This is a click-able Control. When clicked Reset for the Applied Valuation returns the Applied Valuation value to the default value which is the Expected Valuation.



Net Present Value

Net Present Value analysis is not required for Business Valuation. It is provided as an additional supporting methodology.

Net Present Value is the sum of current and future cash flows, where future cash flows are discounted to equivalent present values. It allows financial calculations relating to future events to be considered in present value terms allowing the cost of money, inflation, or opportunity cost to be factored into a financial calculation. This is done by discounting future cash flows to reflect that a dollar received today maybe worth more than a dollar received in a years time.

The longer the future time frame being considered the greater the importance of Net Present Value. For a time frame of 3 years it may provide little additional benefit, as the time frame increases it may become increasingly relevant.

However applying Net Present Value increases the complexity of calculations and tends to make them less intuitive. Therefore base valuations are calculated using the average forecast returns without discounting future cash flows.

From a valuation perspective Net Present Value is the sum of cash flows over the forecast period. This includes the price paid for the business as a negative cash flow (ie the Applied Valuation) and the future cash flows generated by the business (ie the Business Return for each Forecast Year) discounted to equivalent present values, and the potential value of the business at the end of the period.

If the Net Present Value is greater than 0 the investment return exceeds the discount rate (Applied NPV %) and it is a cash positive investment.

If the Net Present Value is equal to 0 the investment return matches the discount rate (Applied NPV %) and it is a cash neutral investment.

If the Net Present Value is less than 0 the investment return exceeds the discount rate (Applied NPV %) and it is a cash negative investment.

For additional detail see Net Present Value at Wikipedia.



Optimistic Net Present Value

Optimistic Net Present Value is the sum of the Applied Valuation (outgoing), the Net Present Value of the Optimistic Business Returns for each forecast year discounted by the Applied NPV %, and the future sale price discounted by the Applied NPV %.

The % Variance to Valuation is the Optimistic Net Present Value expressed as a percentage of the Applied Valuation.

Optimistic Net Present Value = - Applied Valuation + Sum of each Forecast Year [Optimistic Business Return / (1 + Applied NPV %) ^ Year] + Future Sale Price / (1 + Applied NPV %) ^ Year

The Future Sale Price is based on the the Optimistic Business Return of the Last Forecast Year and the Required Return %. Mouse over the calculated Net Present Value to display the Future Sale Price and the Future Sale Price Present Value (future sale price discounted by the Applied NPV %).

Future Sale Price = Optimistic Business Return of the Last Forecast Year / (Required Return %/100)



Expected Net Present Value

Expected Net Present Value is the sum of the Applied Valuation (outgoing), the Net Present Value of the Expected Business Returns for each forecast year discounted by the Applied NPV %, and the future sale price discounted by the Applied NPV %.

The % Variance to Valuation is the Expected Net Present Value expressed as a percentage of the Applied Valuation.

Expected Net Present Value = - Applied Valuation + Sum of each Forecast Year [Expected Business Return / (1 + Applied NPV %) ^ Year] + Future Sale Price / (1 + Applied NPV %) ^ Year

The Future Sale Price is based on the the Expected Business Return of the Last Forecast Year and the Required Return %. Mouse over the calculated Net Present Value to display the Future Sale Price and the Future Sale Price Present Value (future sale price discounted by the Applied NPV %).

Future Sale Price = Expected Business Return of the Last Forecast Year / (Required Return %/100)



Pessimistic Net Present Value

Pessimistic Net Present Value is the sum of the Applied Valuation (outgoing), the Net Present Value of the Pessimistic Business Returns for each forecast year discounted by the Applied NPV %, and the future sale price discounted by the Applied NPV %.

The % Variance to Valuation is the Pessimistic Net Present Value expressed as a percentage of the Applied Valuation.

Pessimistic Net Present Value = - Applied Valuation + Sum of each Forecast Year [Pessimistic Business Return / (1 + Applied NPV %) ^ Year] + Future Sale Price / (1 + Applied NPV %) ^ Year

The Future Sale Price is based on the the Pessimistic Business Return of the Last Forecast Year and the Required Return %. Mouse over the calculated Net Present Value to display the Future Sale Price and the Future Sale Price Present Value (future sale price discounted by the Applied NPV %).

Future Sale Price = Pessimistic Business Return of the Last Forecast Year / (Required Return %/100)



Applied NPV %

Applied NPV % is the NPV Discount Rate % currently used in the Net Present Value calculations. It has no relationship to the Valuation calculations.

The Applied NPV % can be changed to review the impact on the Net Present Value calculations. This allows the Discount Rate to be adjusted to reflect a range of alternatives such as inflation, the cost of money, opportunity cost, or risk coverage.

The default Applied NPV % value is the Required Return %.

The value of the Required Return % would normally reflect the opportunity cost or risk coverage for an investment.



Reset NPV %

This is a click-able Control. When clicked Reset for the Applied NPV % returns the Applied NPV % value to the default value which is the Required Return %.



0 NPV %

This is a click-able Control. When clicked 0 NPV % adjusts the Applied Valuation to a value resulting in an Expected Net Present Value of 0.



Chart - Instructions for Use

The Chart Module provides a plot of selected data by Year. It includes the Current Year (Year 0) and each Forecast Year.

Forecast and Valuation Modules

Plot data is added to the Chart from the Forecast or Valuation Modules by clicking the label of the required data set. This can be repeated to add multiple data sets. The chart is designed to display up to 3 data sets at once each in a different color. The data set plot color is determine by the order it is added to the chart. The first plot is Green, second Red, and third Blue. Plotting Expected, Optimistic and Pessimistic values in order from the Valuation Module results in Optimistic (green), Pessimistic (red), Expected (blue). When more than 3 data sets are added colors are repeated. As data sets are added there is a negative impact on performance. A maximum of 3 data sets is recommended.

Both values and percentages can be plotted. Click to Plot is displayed when the mouse moves over a plottable data set label in the Forecast or Valuation Modules. All plotted data sets use the same Y-axis.

In the Chart the Label of the plotted data is displayed as a title at the top of the Chart in the same color as the plot. Click to Clear is displayed when the mouse moves over a title Label. When a title Label is clicked the plot for that data will be Cleared from the chart. Each plot includes square markers at each Year point. The data value at that point is displayed when the mouse moves over a square marker.



Top Controls

These are Module specific Controls. They appear as click-able links below the Analysis Menu.

Clear

This Control Clears the Chart removing all plots and axis.



Print

This Control prints the current window.

You can also use the browsers Print and Print Preview functions to set print variables. To do this from your browser tool bar go File, Print or File, Print Preview.